Understanding Fuel Trim

FUEL TRIM HEADER Some of the most common Fault Codes (DTC’s) pertain to fuel trim (rich mixture, lean mixture, etc.) Here is an explanation of fuel trim and what it does for us. The ECU controls Air/Fuel mixture in order to maintain power, efficiency, and emissions. A/F is expressed as either a ratio (14.7:1 for example) or as a Lambda value. With iso-octane (“ideal” gasoline), Lambda of 1.0 is equal to 14.7:1 A/F. This is known as “Stoichiometric”, a condition where there is a perfect balance between oxygen molecules and the various hydrogen and carbon based molecules in petroleum. With the oxygenated gasoline that most of us use, actual A/F ratio of 15:1 is closer to stoichiometric.If Lambda is greater than 1.0, then there is a surplus of air and the engine is running lean. If Lambda is less than 1.0, then there is a surplus of fuel and the engine is running rich. It should be noted that the ratios are mass-based, not volume-based.  Read more
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BASIC TECH: FUSES

fuse_graphic If there is one often misunderstood and commonly overlooked component in your automobile, it’s your fuses.Today’s modern automobile can literally have several dozen fuses protecting important systems and sub-systems. Each one critical to operation and safety, but more often than not we pay no attention to them, at least until something stops working. Read more
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The Simplicity and Sophistication of Engine Bearings. Part 2

bearings2 Part one of our engine bearing series covered the technical side of how bearings are are engineered and what materials they are made from. In this segment, we get a little more hands on by discussing how bearings wear and how to diagnose problems with engine bearings. Once again, we have enlisted our experts from King Engine Bearings and MAHLE Clevite to give us the straight scoop on the how’s and why’s of bearing replacement. Read more
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The Simplicity And Sophistication Of Engine Bearings. Part 1

bearings We’ve all seen engine bearings and probably have taken them for granted. These little half shell, simple pieces of metal look so common and inexpensive that they couldn’t possibly be that intricate and instrumental in engine operation. Actually, looks can be deceiving and the simplicity of engine bearings hides the sophistication of decades of research and development invested into these essential engine components. Read more
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Modern Tuning Techniques For Holley Carburetors

CARBTUNING Over the past 50 years, the venerable Holley carburetor hasn’t changed much. It’s simple design and near infinite adjust-ability have long made it a favorite among enthusiasts. What has changed are the tuning tools available to us. While EFI tuners routinely use this new technology with great success, surprisingly few carb owners have warmed up to the idea yet. Read more
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